Harm is a consequence of conscious choice, by an individual human or a group of humans. Conscious perpetration of harm, is the essence of evil.
Humans make choices that cause harm when they perceive their benefits to be greater than their costs.
Altruism, ethics and repercussions; are not sufficient to deter humans from harmful choices.
Motivations for choices that cause harm are diverse, complicated; and all too often, beyond our comprehension.
Harm and harmful activity can be defined, identified and resisted.
Incentives for harmful choices can be controlled or eliminated.